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          建筑外墙保温材料

          作者:匿名    访问量:2898    发布时间:2013/9/18

          外墙外保温系统的防火构造措檀越要有四个方面:防火隔离带、挡火梁、无空腔构造和防火保护面层。

          1、防火隔离带

          需要指出的是对于使用热塑性可燃、易燃材料的外墙外保温系统,因为发生火灾时易发生滴落、流淌火灾,即使设置防火隔离带也轻易发生火灾“跳跃式”蔓延,因此应用防火隔离带技术,必需同时对外墙外保温材料做出一定的限制。防火隔断的尺寸应根据建筑的重要性和保温材料的燃烧机能确定并在规范中予以明确划定。
          防火隔离带应选择不燃材料,在空腔结构中应是破坏空腔构造的整体技术,并且在垂直方向和水平方向都应该设置。防火隔离带能够有效地阻止火焰蔓延,防止外墙外保温系统墙面整体燃烧,起到“防火分区”和“防火间距”的作用,墙板机在外墙保温系统特别在空腔构造的幕墙结构中应大量应用。

          2、挡火梁

          为防止建筑内部火灾向外卷吸蔓延引燃外墙外保温材料,应划定使用非A级外保温材料的建筑物外墙启齿部位(如外窗)上方应设置挡火梁。

          这种隔火构造方式原理与防火隔离带类似,不燃材料的挡火梁水平设置于门窗洞口的上边沿,并伸出门窗洞口竖向边沿一定长度,以防止室内火焰向上卷吸蔓延。

          3、无空腔构造
          无空腔做法可解决空腔带来的火灾危害。

          工程中常用的幕墙-空气间层-保温板这一类的构造就应该避免。

          有机保温板与基层墙体之间或与装饰面层之间假如有空腔存在,将在火灾发生时为燃烧提供氧气,在火灾发生后提供烟囱通道,加速火灾的蔓延。所以在保温板的施工工艺中,要避免使用产生空腔的点粘法,尽量采用满粘法。该构造中保温板在幕墙内部并与幕墙保持一定的旷地空闲,旷地空闲内存在大量空气,保温材料一旦被引燃,将迅速蔓延,并且不易扑灭,由于幕墙挡住了消防用水接触保温板,如央视新址北配楼西立面的钛锌板-挤塑板就是这一类构造,火灾损失严峻。这类构造的火灾危险性还体现在金属骨架上,金属骨架在施工的时候不可避免的要使用电焊、切割工艺,这些施工工艺会产生火星,轻易引燃保温材料。
          4.防火保护层面
          保护面层可以减少和消除火灾对保温材料的侵袭,水泥砂浆就可以作为保温层的防火保护面层,不外在火灾前提下,普通水泥砂浆轻易开裂,影响防护效果,应该改善防护砂浆的耐火机能;也可以采用玻化微珠保温浆料和岩棉等不燃材料作为防火保护面层。防火面层的厚度越厚,防火保护效果越好,应该通过试验和外墙外保温的防火要求确定防火保护面层的种类和厚度。

          本文由www.blogkoukoku.com提供 

          Exterior insulation system of fire protection construction measures TanYue must have the four aspects: fire belt, firestop beam, no cavity structure and fire protection layer.
          1, fire belt
          It should be pointed out that the use of thermoplastic exterior insulation system of flammable and combustible materials, because during flows dripping, fire, fire even set fire belt easily also fire spread "by leaps and bounds", so the application of fire belt technology, necessary external wall thermal insulation material at the same time a certain limit. Fire partition size should be based on the importance of building and burning heat preservation material function identified and shall be clearly defined in the specification.
          Fire belt should choose non-combustible material, should be in the cavity structure damage cavity structure of the overall technology, and in the vertical direction and horizontal direction should be set up. Fire belt can effectively prevent flame spread, prevent metope whole combustion exterior insulation system, a "fire zone" and "fire", the effect of exterior wall thermal insulation system in particular in the cavity construction curtain wall structure should be a large number of applications.
          2, firestop beam
          To prevent internal fire spread outward entrainment ignition exterior insulation materials, should be defined using the class A building external wall was reluctant to part of external thermal insulation material (such as outside the window) should be set above the fire damper beam.
          This way of fire insulation structure principle is similar to fire belt, non-combustible material block fire level Settings in the Windows and doors hole on the edge of the hole and out door vertical edge with a certain length, in order to prevent the indoor fire spread upward entrainment.
          3, no cavity structure
          No cavity approach can solve the fire hazards are caused by the cavity.
          The curtain wall is commonly used in engineering - layer between air - insulation board should avoid this kind of structure.
          Between organic insulation board and wall at the grass-roots level or if free space between architectural surface and exist, will be to provide oxygen for combustion, when the fire broke out after the fire provide chimney channel, accelerate the spread of fire. In the construction process of insulation board, therefore, to avoid using cavity point sticking method, try to use full stick method. The insulation board on the wall of the internal structure and maintain a certain opening free with curtain wall, kuang free within a large number of air, heat preservation material once burned, will spread quickly, and not easy to put out, because of the curtain wall blocking the fire water contact insulation board, such as CCTV new site north of flats west facade of titanium zinc plate - extruded board is this kind of structure, fire loss serious. Fire risk of this kind of structure is embodied in the metal frame, metal frame at the time of construction inevitably to use electric welding, cutting process, the construction process will produce Mars, easily ignited insulation materials.
          4. The fire protection level
          Fire protection layer can reduce and eliminate on heat preservation material, cement mortar can be as fire protection layer of insulation, without external fire, ordinary cement mortar is easy craze, influence protective effect, should improve the protective function of refractory mortar; Also can use vitrified beads insulation paste and non-combustible material such as rock wool as fire protection layer. Fire layer thickness is thicker, fire protection, the better, should be through the test and exterior insulation fire prevention requirements determine the type and thickness of fire protection layer.

           

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